The list of products on the basis of ND:
- Polydispersed ND powder.
- Fractions 1-2, 3-5 in a paste
- ND suspension in water, with a standard size 10-20 nm and 100nm.
Nano-diamond (ND) is a synthetic powder material produced by blowing up high explosives in special conditions.
The size of primary particles can be within the limits of 4 nm (as a standard) up to 100 nm (The product called by its developers from Chernogolovki as «Dalan» or polycrystalline nano-diamond). The product we suggest consists of 3-10 nm particles. After blowing up the high explosives (synthesis) charge material is formed, which consists of nano-diamonds and impurities – graphite, soot, metals, gases etc. In further technological processes the charge is refined from inclusions until a grey diamond powder is formed with initial particles bonded together by attraction forces and chemical bonds. A mixture of aggregates with 20 nm up to 1mkm in size is formed (a polydispersed nano-diamond). We disperse polydispersed ND in liquids (break large aggregates to smaller ones) and separate into fractions of various sizes.
In the production process we form two polishing mixtures or fractions 1-2 and 3-5, which are polycrystalline powders of ND with the size of 500-1000 nm and 200-600 nm, which are used for polishing. The product is stored in a water paste or in other liquids. The main mass of polydispersed ND is transformed into smaller fractions. For convenience we produce two particle sizes of ND in water – 100nm and 10-20nm, but there could be other sizes as well. Polycrystalline ND is applied in polishing procedures.
ND with the size of less than 200 nm is used as a structural transformer in various synthesis processes and material forming as a property modifier of materials and substances. Besides, various ÏÐÈØÈÂÊÀ could be deposited on the ND surface and then be applied in biology, medicine and other spheres. At present there exist many already applied and future oriented ways of ND application, which will improve life for the better, for example:
- Modifiers of galvanic surfaces;
- Modifiers for oils and lubricants;
- Catalizer carrier;
- Carrier for chemical ÏÐÈØÈÂÊÀ applied in biology;
- Modifiers for polymer materials;
- Finishing polishing;
Technology for realization
Technology of ND charge synthesis through utilization of high explosives.
In 2005 we got a grant from the CRDF for research of ND synthesis utilizing high explosives. Our grant partner was the Kopeisk “Plant Plastmass”. At present the plant is mastering this process. In addition to Kopeisk plant this method is now studied in Check republic at a plant utilizing high explosives. By using regular high explosives the synthesis procedure can decrease the price of ND 2-3 times.
Technology of synthesis of ND charge which has specific properties.
For a number of applications it is necessary to get ND with specific properties. This could be achieved by introducing special impurities during the synthesis process. The process is not well studied yet since there appear new ways of using this type of ND with new properties which were unknown before.
Technology of synthesis of polycrystalline ND with a particle size about 100nm (DALAN).
Today to produce polishing mixtures to make present-day diodes there is used the DALAN type ND, which is s polycrystalline ND with the particle size about 100 nm. According to marketing research this product will be in great demand. Our specialists participated in trial operation of synthesis technology of DALAN.
Technology of different stages in refining the ND charge.
During the synthesis process after blowing up of high explosives in the chamber there is formed diamond charge which consists of a mixture of ND, iron, copper and other metals, as well as graphite, soot, organic substances and gases. To produce pure ND charge there should be several stages of refinement. It is possible to have a one stage process, as well as a multi-stage process using different chemical agents. Depending on the method of refinement there is produced ND charge with different properties – positive and negative charge of particles, level of zeta potential etc.
Technology of ND production with ozone refining and modifications.
Our plant patented a method of ND production with ozone refinement and modification. To produce ND the charge is first refined from metals and then graphite and soot in ozone reactor. Because of the difference in the oxidation rate, ND is refined from non-diamond carbon forms. This product has a negative charge and the highest known zeta potential. The product, the method and the device are being patented in the RF, USA and Europe now.
OND is an ozone refined ND and the products based on it (future product).
At present we work on:
- Technology of production of galvanic electrolytes modified on ND.
- Technology of production of oil and lubricant systems with unique limit properties, modified by ND and other modifiers.
- Technology and equipment for production of catalizers with nm sizes protected by a ND coating.
- Technology of production ND of the DALAN type with a particle size 100 nm, called polycrystalline.
- Methods of calculation and ways of production of chambers for ND charge synthesis. From mini-chambers to chambers for tens of cubic meters.
- Technology of synthesis of doped (modified during the synthesis process) ND, having inclusions in crystalline lattice or surface structure.
- Analysis, research and development of technologies for production and application of ND.